What Is
Hep C?

‘Hepatitis’ is a general term for inflammation of the liver. ‘Hepatitis C’, also known as ‘hep C,’ is an infection of the liver that results from the hepatitis C virus.

The hepatitis C virus is spread by blood to blood contact.

How Hep C affects the liver

The liver has many different and important tasks, including removal of waste products, fighting infection, controlling bleeding, digesting food and storing energy. It plays an essential role in maintaining good health.

If you have hepatitis C, it can damage your liver. In some cases, after more than 20 years, hepatitis C can lead to cirrhosis (severe scarring), liver failure and sometimes liver cancer.

That’s why it is important to get tested if you can say ‘yes’ to any of the hepatitis C risk factors or symptoms.

Hep C infection can be either acute (recent) or chronic (long-lasting).

Acute stage

Acute hepatitis C refers to the clinical illness that someone may develop up to 6 months after being infected with the hep C virus. Most people do not experience symptoms during the acute phase.

However, around 3 in 10 people who have recently been infected will develop symptoms of acute hepatitis including tiredness, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea, joint pain and jaundice (yellowing of the whites of the eyes, dark urine and pale bowel motions).

For unknown reasons, about 1 out of 4 infected people will get rid of the virus in the first six months without any treatment.

Clearing the virus during the acute stage will not protect you from getting hep C again if you are re-exposed to the virus again.

You can be re-infected with the hep C virus more than once.


Chronic stage

About 3 out of 4 people cannot get rid of the virus after becoming infected and will develop a chronic (long-lasting) hep C infection.

Many people with hep C have no symptoms, or only vague symptoms, so people can be unaware of the infection. Even though a person has no symptoms, the virus can still be detected in the blood.

Over many years untreated hep C can lead to serious liver damage as well as complications that affect other parts of the body and can have a negative impact on quality of life.

The only way to know if you have hep C is to get tested.

The potential progression of hep C following exposure to the virus


Diagnosis of ACUTE hep C


1 in 4 people recover without treatment. 3 in 4 people progress to Chronic hep C

1 in 5 people with chronic hep C will go on to develop Cirrhosis

What can happen if hepatitis C is left untreated?

Having hep C doesn’t automatically mean you’ll experience symptoms or develop liver disease. But the longer you live with it, the more likely you will have some sort of liver damage.

When the liver becomes damaged, it forms scar tissue. When the liver first becomes scarred, it is known as fibrosis. When the scarring increases so much that the liver can’t function properly, this is known as cirrhosis.

Of people with untreated chronic hep C, approximately 1 out of 5 will develop cirrhosis within 20 to 30 years. This risk is increased in people who are overweight or who have lifestyle risk factors such as heavy alcohol or cannabis use.

Untreated hep C can lead to liver disease, liver failure and an increased risk of liver cancer in some people.

Possible progression of liver damage

Successful treatment of hepatitis C infection can reduce the risk of developing liver failure and liver cancer.

Why it’s so important to get tested

The hep C virus is contagious and can exist in amounts of blood that are too small to see. It is spread when infected blood enters your bloodstream and can exist in traces of blood outside the body for several days to weeks.

No matter the stage of hep C infection, symptoms may not appear even though liver damage could be happening. This is why it is important to get tested.

You can check if you have any risk factors or symptoms of hep C. And if you have any questions or want to get tested, see your doctor.


Early diagnosis and treatment can save lives.

Hepatitis C is one of several types of viral hepatitis

Other common hepatitis viruses include hep A and hep B. Although each virus can cause similar symptoms, they are spread in different ways and can affect the liver differently.

Hep A is transmitted by contact with faeces of an infected person. It is mainly spread by consumption of contaminated water or food.

Hep B is spread when blood or other body fluids (such as vaginal fluids or semen) from a person infected with the virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. It can be spread from mother to child during childbirth, having unprotected sex, and sharing needles and syringes or other drug-injection equipment.

Hep C is spread when your blood comes into contact with even a small amount of infected blood.

The New Zealand Hepatitis Foundation has more information on the different types of viral hepatitis.


You can be vaccinated against hep A and hep B but there is NO vaccination for hep C.

Testing saves lives

If you can’t find what you are looking for the best person to talk to is your doctor.

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